Stalking PDF

Jump to navigation Jump to search A stalking horse is a figure that tests a concept with someone or mounts a challenge against someone on behalf of an anonymous third party. In hunting, it refers to a horse, or a figure of a horse, behind which a hunter hides when stalking PDF game. The term stalking horse originally derived from the practice of hunting, particularly of wildfowl.

Författare: Lidia Smischek.

Die wohl komplexeste Problematik des Phänomens Stalking ist, dass viele der klassischen Stalkinghandlungen Ausdruck eines sozialadäquaten Verhaltens sein können. Ziel der Untersuchung ist die Beantwortung der Frage, wo das normale Alltagsverhalten endet und unter welchen Voraussetzungen Stalking die Legitimität strafbaren Unrechts erfährt. Auf der Basis eines umfassenden empirischen Teils wird nachgewiesen, dass Stalking als Strafunrecht begründende Persönlichkeitsrechtsverletzung zu qualifizieren ist. Den Abschluss bildet der Entwurf eines eigenen Stalkingstraftatbestands de lege ferenda.

Hunters would therefore slowly approach their quarry by walking alongside their horses, keeping their upper bodies out of sight until the flock was within firing range. Animals trained for this purpose were called stalking horses. Sometimes mobile hides are used for a similar purpose. Jeremiah: Wind’s right, but he’ll just run soon as we step out of these trees. Walk out on this side of your horse. Jeremiah: What if he sees our feet?

Bear Claw: Elk don’t know how many feet a horse have! This section needs additional citations for verification. The term began appearing in Anglophone newspapers in the late 18th century. It was used to describe the Protestant branch of Christianity as „a stalking horse to power“ in Ireland in 1785. The expression is generally used in politics and business. In politics, the circumstances may include an attempt to bring down a powerful leader, usually by members of their own party. They may also include the presentation of a bill by a minor party representative, who is also acting in the interests of a silent partner such as a larger, more risk averse, political party.

The loser in the exercise appears to be the stalking horse. If the idea is viable or popular, the stalking horse person will be sidelined and the anonymous figure will take over the concept themselves. If the concept proves unpopular, the stalking horse will suffer any negative reaction. The understanding is that the anonymous party is a major player, perhaps only a little weaker than the target itself, and the stalking horse is a minor figure who has little or no reputation to lose. In politics, the stalking horse figure can expect patronage from the senior figure they are assisting. In business, an associated company that acts as a stalking horse may be given a share in the contracts or the market share that will result from the demise of the business rival. Alternatively, the „horse“ may be acting in a more altruistic and self-sacrificial manner, knowing that there is no possibility of realistic reward from the third party for the exercise, and instead being motivated by duty or loyalty to do so for the greater good of the party, organization, or cause to which they both belong.

In the event of failure, the anonymous party is seen as being sufficiently powerful to protect the „horse“ from any real retribution on the part of the target, particularly since the anonymity will allow the third party to step in and pretend to be an honest broker between the „horse“ and the target. This is a further opportunity to enhance the reputation of the third party and boost their status at the expense of the target. This section possibly contains original research. One related concept is the smoke screen. Like a stalking horse, smoke screens are used to screen and mask an attack. A stalking horse would be a particular form of smoke screen.

Another concept is that of kite-flying. The stalking horse pretends to be interested in a concept themselves, but in reality they are testing an idea for another. The difference here is that collusion usually refers to the situation of the first and third parties both declaring themselves openly to the target, but each pretends to be independent of anyone else and acting solely for themselves, whilst in reality they are acting in concert, in joint enterprise and to mutual advantage, at the expense of the target. Another related idiom is that of the puppet-master.

The stalking horse appears to be acting for and as themselves, but there are others in the shadows. The concept of a „sacrificial pawn“ is also in some ways similar to that of the stalking horse. In the game of chess, a pawn may be advanced in the knowledge that it will definitely be lost, but will, in so doing, force out an enemy piece of much higher value and make that piece much more susceptible to attack. This image is also in common usage as an metaphor. The phenomenon occurs particularly in politics, where a junior politician acts as the stalking horse to promote the interests of a senior politician, who remains unseen in case the actions would damage him or her but nevertheless wants to provoke a debate or challenge to a party colleague.

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