Music, Gender and Culture PDF

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See Wikipedia’s guide to writing better articles for suggestions. Misogyny in rap music refers to lyrics, videos or other aspects of rap music that support, glorify, justify, or normalize the objectification, exploitation, or victimization of women. Scholars have proposed various explanations for the presence of misogyny in rap music. Based on these three stereotypes, the videos present African American women as greedy, dishonest, sex objects, with no respect for themselves or others, including the children under their care. The women in the videos are scorned by men and exist to bring pleasure to them. Mia Moody-Ramirez writes that, „Most female artists define independence by mentioning elements of financial stability and sexuality.

They denote that they are in control of their bodies and sexuality. Many male rappers pit the independent woman against the gold digger or rider narrative when they preach independence in their lyrics. Responses to misogyny in hip hop music have ranged from criticism by women’s rights activists, student protests and organized campaigns to a 2007 congressional hearing. Mainstream hip hop music authenticates homophobia and sexism in order to celebrate images of violence.

Rappers create explicit, violent lyrics against women to prove their authenticity as gangsters. Academic Elijah Anderson links the treatment of women in hip hop culture with troubled gender relations in inner-city Black and Latino communities. Another rationale for the use of misogyny in hip hop music is that it has helped to gain rappers commercial success. While hip hop began as a producer based art form among working class and poor African American and Puerto Rican youth, its transformation into a global consumer product has influenced even its treatment of women. Many scholars have argued that misogyny in hip hop culture is a product of misogyny within American culture at large. Jeff Chang and David Zirkin contend that the misogyny extant in American popular culture provides „incentives for young men of color to act out a hard-core masculinity.

Feminist Bell Hooks suggests that misogyny in hip-hop culture is not a „male black thing“ but has its roots in a larger pattern of hostility toward women in American culture. The misogynist lyrics of gangsta rap are hateful indeed, but they do not represent a new trend in Black popular culture, nor do they differ fundamentally from woman hating discourses that are common among White men. The danger of this insight is that it might be read as an apology for Black misogyny. Of particular importance are those aspects of the music that frequently appear in the midst of political debates and media hype. Often, these aspects are scrutinized not with the intent of acquiring greater and more nuanced understandings of the art form, but rather to further one political agenda or produce a nice sound bite. The misogyny in rap music is one such case. Misogynistic rap often depicts physical violence and rape as appropriate responses to women who challenge male domination, refuse sexual advances, or simply „offend“ men.

A related sub-theme involves boasting about sex acts that harm or are painful for women. Many misogynistic rap songs also portray women as untrustworthy or unworthy of respect. Overt misogyny in rap music emerged in the late 1980s, and has since then been a feature of the music of numerous hip hop artists. A 2005 content analysis of six outlets of media found that music contained substantially more sexual content than any other media outlets. In a 2001 content analysis of gangsta rap, sociologists Charis E. Women in rap videos are placed in positions of objectification and sexual submission to their male counterparts.

However, the subordination of women is not unique to the genre of hip hop. Yet the researchers pointed out that misogyny seems to be less common in rap music than some critics believe. According to some studies, women are presented as subordinate to men in a majority of rock and country music videos. Rapper Tim’m West says it’s time to start asking questions about rap and hip-hop, „we need to begin to ask why we bought into this industry that overwhelmingly places emphasis and resources and capital on people who promote images that are seen as negative and that do promote stereotypes as opposed to the more positive images,“ West says. Experimental research has attempted to measure the effects of exposure to rap music. Numerous studies have found a correlation between consumption of misogynistic hip hop music and negative beliefs about women. Not only are women objectified and abused in lyrics to sexually explicit music, but the music also portrays the women as being lesser than men.

According to the textbook Women: Images and Realities, this music sends the message to young adults, especially Black youth that their enemy is Black girls and women, since the music portrays women as selfish, untrustworthy, and as subordinate. A 2007 study by Michael Cobb and William Boettcher found that exposure to rap music increases sexist attitudes toward women. Men who listened to rap music held more sexist beliefs than the control group. Women were also more likely to support sexism when rap music was not overtly misogynistic.

However, they were less likely to hold sexist beliefs when the lyrics were very misogynistic. Cole and Beverly Guy-Sheftall, for instance, have expressed concern over the effects of misogyny in hip hop culture on children, stating, „We are concerned because we believe that hip-hop is more misogynist and disrespectful of Black girls and women than other popular music genres. A longitudinal study indicated that young people who regularly listen to sexually degrading lyrics are more likely to have sex at an earlier age while exposure to non-degrading sexual content had no effect. Sexually degrading lyrics were found to be most common in rap music. In a 2011 study, Gourdine and Lemmons identified age and listening habits as key factors which determine the perception and impact of misogyny in hip hop music.

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