Model Driven Architecture and Offshoring PDF

Jump to navigation Jump to search Not to be confused with Offshoring. Outsourcing is an agreement in which one company hires another company to be responsible for a planned or existing activity that model Driven Architecture and Offshoring PDF or could be done internally. Outsourcing is also the practice of handing over control of public services to private enterprises.


Författare: Rene Molle.
Diplomarbeit aus dem Jahr 2009 im Fachbereich Informatik – Wirtschaftsinformatik, Note: 1,3, FOM Essen, Hochschule für Oekonomie & Management gemeinnützige GmbH, Hochschulleitung Essen früher Fachhochschule, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Gegenstand der hier vorgestellten Diplomarbeit ist die Darstellung und Bewertung der modellbasierten Offshore-Entwicklung. In Zeiten der Globalisierung und dem Wunsch nach einer Industrialisierung der Softwareproduktion sind innovative und in der Praxis anwendbare Verfahren gefragt. Ein vielversprechender Ansatz, der in diese Richtung geht, ist die Kombination von modellbasierter Softwareentwicklung und dem klassischen Offshoring von IT-Dienstleistungen. Im ersten Teil dieser Arbeit wird dazu der Standard "Model Driven Architecture", bei dem die Modellierung die zentrale Tätigkeit im Entwicklungsprozess einnimmt, dargestellt und bewertet. Der zweite Teil widmet sich dem Thema Offshoring von IT-Dienstleistungen und erläutert detailliert, welche Besonderheiten es zu beachten gilt. Für beide Bereiche werden Stärken und Schwächen analysiert, um eine optimale Kombination der Vorgehensweisen vorzubereiten. Die Zusammenführung ist Bestandteil der nachfolgenden Inhalte und wird in dem Praxisteil angewendet. Die Umsetzung erfolgt mithilfe der Software "Enterprise Architect" auf Basis eines Praxisproblems zur Verwaltung von Software-Lizenzen. Begonnen mit der Industrialisierung wird im Schlussteil auf diese erneut verwiesen und die gewonnen Erkenntnisse abschließend zusammengefasst und überprüft.
Abstract:
The present thesis is disputing the topic of "Model Driven Offshoring" and how it can be used in practice. In times of global markets and during industrialization of software production innovative approaches are needed for ensuring competitiveness. Model based software development is considered as a powerful emerging paradigm for engineering software systems. On the other side Offshoring is a top management issue and a strategic task to reduce costs in a highly on human work depending industry. In these regards, the first part of this work gives an insight view and analyses strengths and weaknesses of both separated proceedings. Subsequently a combined approach addressing these "pain points" of offshore projects will be introduced and then applied to a small practical problem. The technical implementation will be done by using the software "Enterprise Architect" in the matter of designing a software licence management tool. Finally, as a conclusion, the solution is compared and summarized to the prior introduced industrialization.

Offshoring and outsourcing are not mutually exclusive: there can be one without the other. Offshoring is moving the work to a distant country. If the distance workplace is owned by the company, then the offshore operation is a captive. Insourcing entails bringing processes handled by third-party firms in-house, and is sometimes accomplished via vertical integration. Financial savings from lower international labor rates can provide a major motivation for outsourcing or offshoring. There can be tremendous savings from lower international labor rates when offshoring.

Another motivation is speed to market, and to make this work, a new process was developed: „outsource the outsourcing process. Outsourcing can offer greater budget flexibility and control by allowing organizations to pay for the services and business functions they need, when they need them. It also reduces the need to hire and train specialized staff, makes available specialized expertise, and can reduce capital, operating expenses, and risk. Do what you do best and outsource the rest“ has become an internationally recognized business tagline first „coined and developed“ in the 1990s by the „legendary management consultant“ Peter Drucker. The slogan was primarily used to advocate outsourcing as a viable business strategy. Gamble outsourced their facilities‘ management support, but it did not involve offshoring. Two organizations may enter into a contractual agreement involving an exchange of services, expertise, and payments.

In the early 21st century, businesses increasingly outsourced to suppliers outside their own country, sometimes referred to as offshoring or offshore outsourcing. From Drucker’s perspective, a company should only seek to subcontract in those areas in which it demonstrated no special ability. The business strategy outlined by his slogan recommended that companies should take advantage of a specialist provider’s knowledge and economies of scale to improve performance and achieve the service needed. In 2009 by way of recognition, Peter Drucker posthumously received a significant honor, when he was inducted into the Outsourcing Hall of Fame for his outstanding work in the field. You can help by adding to it. Companies primarily outsource to reduce certain costs, which may include peripheral or „non-core“ business expenses, high taxes, high energy costs, excessive government regulation or mandates, and production or labor costs.

The incentive to outsource may be greater for U. Freeing internal resources for other purposes. Streamlining or increasing efficiency for time-consuming functions. Outsourcing of white-collar work has grown rapidly since the early 21st century, despite a focus on manufacturing outsourcing. Ending a government oursourcing arrangement has its difficulties too. Globalization and complex supply chains, along with greater physical distance between higher management and the production-floor employees often requires a change in management methodologies, as inspection and feedback may not be as direct and frequent as in internal processes.

In the area of call center outsourcing, organizations that are not experienced in working with outsourced call centers may suffer from lower end-user-experience as a result of outsourcing. This is exacerbated when outsourcing is combined with offshoring in regions where the first language and culture are different. For example, foreign call center agents may speak with different linguistic features such as accents, word use and phraseology, which may impede comprehension. In 1979, Nobel laureate Oliver E. Williamson wrote that the governance structure is the „framework within which the integrity of a transaction is decided. Adding further that „because contracts are varied and complex, governance structures vary with the nature of the transaction.

Outsourced staff may not even change desks, but their legal status changes. This is one of the most complex areas of outsourcing and sometimes involves a specialist third-party adviser. Fraud is a specific security issue as well as criminal activity, whether it is by employees or the supplier staff. However, it can be disputed that fraud is more likely when outsourcing is involved. 350,000 from four Citibank customers when call-center workers acquired the passwords to customer accounts and transferred the money to their own accounts opened under fictitious names. Citibank did not find out about the problem until the American customers noticed discrepancies with their accounts and notified the bank.

2016 by The Great Convergence: Information Technology and the New Globalization. A number of outsourcings and offshortings that were deemed failures led to reversals signaled by use of terms such as Insourcing and reshoring. The New York Times reported that IBM „plans to hire 25,000 more workers in the United States over the next four years,“ overlapping India-based Infosys’s „10,000 workers in the United States over the next two years. Among problems encountered were supply-and-demand induced raises in salaries and lost benefits of similar-time-zone. Other issues were differences in language and culture. Another reason for a decrease in outsourcing is that many jobs that were subcontracted abroad have been replaced by technological advances. According to a Deloitte Consulting survey carried out in 2005, a quarter of the companies which had outsourced tasks reversed their strategy.

Many big companies like Lenovo considered turning around outsourcing strategies of outsourcing. These reversals, however, didn’t undo the damage. Public opinion in the US and other Western powers opposing outsourcing was particularly strengthened by the drastic increase in unemployment as a result of the 2007-2008 financial crisis. From 2000 to 2010, the US experienced a net loss of 687,000 jobs due to outsourcing, primarily in the computers and electronics sector.

A counterswing depicted by a 2016 Deloitte survey suggested that companies are no longer reluctant to outsource. Organizations are „redefining the ways they enter into outsourcing relationships and manage the ensuing risks. Organizations are changing the way they are managing their relationships with outsourcing providers to „maximize the value of those relationships. Outsourcing has gone through many iterations and reinventions. Further, the label outsourcing has been found to be used for too many different kinds of exchanges often in confusing ways.

For example, global software development, which often involves people working in different countries, cannot simply be called outsourcing. The outsourcing-based market model fails to explain why these development projects are jointly developed, and not simply bought and sold in the marketplace. From the standpoint of labor, outsourcing may represent a new threat, contributing to worker insecurity, and is reflective of the general process of globalization and economic polarization. Western governments may attempt to compensate workers affected by outsourcing through various forms of legislation. In Europe, the Acquired Rights Directive attempts to address the issue. The Directive is implemented differently in different nations. A main feature of outsourcing influencing policy-making is the unpredictability it generates regarding the future of any particular sector or skill-group.

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