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On the other hand, if you want to teach you R, you will need some data to play with. Luckily, R comes with a wealth of data sets. I did use such manipulations while writing those notes, in order to find an example satisfying some properties. For instance, if you measure squirrels, you will have one row per squirrel, one column for the weight, another for the tail length, another for the height, another for the fur colour, etc.

There are sonetimes ordered qualitative variables, for instance, a variable whose values would be „never“, „seldom“, „sometimes“, „often“, „always“. These data are sometimes obtained by binning quantitative data. We shall often call this vector a „statistical series“. Unsurprisingly, this is what the „summary“ function gives us. 487783 Always be critical when observing data: in particular, you should check that the extreme values are not aberrant, that they do not come from some mistake.

2915 But you might not be familiar with those notions: let us recall the links between the mean, variance, median and MAD. One can show that it is the median. One can show that it is the mean. This property of the mean is called the „Least Squares Property“.