The main article for this category is Hentai. Subcategories This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total. Pages in category „Hentai anime and manga“ The following 124 pages are in this category, coffin of Cerebrum PDF of 124 total.
Författare: Tokihara Masato.
For other uses, see Brain Dead. This article needs additional citations for verification. Brain death is used as an indicator of legal death in many jurisdictions, but it is defined inconsistently. Various parts of the brain may keep functioning when others do not anymore, and the term „brain death“ has been used to refer to various combinations. Traditionally, both the legal and medical communities determined death through the permanent end of certain bodily functions in clinical death, especially respiration and heartbeat. Since the 1960s, laws on determining death have, therefore, been implemented in all countries with active organ transplantation programs. In the United States, Kansas had enacted a similar law earlier.
An ad hoc committee at Harvard Medical School published a pivotal 1968 report to define irreversible coma. In the UK, the Royal College of Physicians reported in 1995, abandoning the 1979 claim that the tests published in 1976 sufficed for the diagnosis of brain death and suggesting a new definition of death based on the irreversible loss of brain stem function alone. Natural movements also known as Lazarus sign or Lazarus reflex can occur on a brain-dead person whose organs have been kept functioning by life support. The living cells that can cause these movements are not living cells from the brain or brain stem, these cells come from the spinal cord. Sometimes these body movements can cause false hope for family members.
A brain-dead individual has no clinical evidence of brain function upon physical examination. This includes no response to pain and no cranial nerve reflexes. Brain electrical activity can stop completely, or drop to such a low level as to be undetectable with most equipment. An EEG will therefore be flat, though this is sometimes also observed during deep anesthesia or cardiac arrest. The diagnosis of brain death is often required to be highly rigorous, in order to be certain that the condition is irreversible. Legal criteria vary, but in general require neurological examinations by two independent physicians.
Radionuclide scan: No intracranial blood flow. 72 hours, can lead to a false positive test on a patient that may recover with more time. CT angiography is neither required nor sufficient test to make the diagnosis. Confirmatory testing is only needed under the age of 1.
For children and adults, testing is optional. While the diagnosis of brain death has become accepted as a basis for the certification of death for legal purposes, it is a very different state from biological death – the state universally recognized and understood as death. When mechanical ventilation is used to support the body of a brain dead organ donor pending a transplant into an organ recipient, the donor’s date of death is listed as the date that brain death was diagnosed. In the United States, if the patient is at or near death, the hospital must notify a transplant organization of the person’s details and maintain the patient while the patient is being evaluated for suitability as a donor. The patient is kept on ventilator support until the organs have been surgically removed. Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine.